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Quality properties of set yoghurt as affected by types of Acacia gum and storage period

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Kamal Awad Abdel Razig ,Abeer Mohammed Bashir ,Mohammed Mokhtar Kunna ,Albaraa Mohammed Galad ,2015, Quality properties of set yoghurt as affected by types of Acacia gum and storage period ,Journal of Science and Technology,16 (2) ,pp:-

Authors:
By Kamal Awad Abdel Razig ,Abeer Mohammed Bashir ,Mohammed Mokhtar Kunna ,Albaraa Mohammed Galad ,
Year:
2015
Keywords
Set yoghurt , Acacia gum , physicochemical, acceptability, storage period
Abstract
The effect of types of Acacia gums added at the level of 0.3%, and storage periods on quality properties of set yoghurt prepared using cow milk was investigated. The types of Acacia gums included Acacia senegal, Acacia leata, Acacia polyacantha, Acacia seyal var. seyal and Acacia seyal var. fistula were used for stabilizing the texture of the set yoghurt. Starter culture (5%) was added after the pasteurization of the milk at 85C for 10 minutes. The milk was incubated at 45C for four hours, thereafter cooled to a temperature of 62C,and stored for 20 days. The physicochemical, rheological properties, minerals content and acceptability were determined at storage intervals of 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 days. The physicochemical determinations revealed that, all test samples recorded decrease in pH-values that occurred during all storage intervals where the highest value (4.18) was recorded by the sample treated with Acacia leata and the lowest (3.62) was recorded by the control. The addition of acacia gums has significantly (P≤ 0.05) lower levels of the titratable acidity in all samples of set yoghurt compared to the control. The test sample of set yoghurt treated with containing Acacia leata has recorded the highest (19.25%) for the total solids, protein (4.22%) and ash (1.21%). The highest fat content (3.41%) was obtained by yoghurt containing Acacia senegal. The viscosity of the control sample expressed the lowest value being (2116 cps) while the highest (2505 cps) was obtained by set yoghurt treated with Acacia senegal. The results of the rheological analyses indicated that, the control sample has provided the highest wheying-off and synersis (0.92 ml, 2.98%) while the lowest (0.38 ml, 1.85% respectively) were given by the gum of the acacia leata. However, little increase in the volume of the wheying-off and synersis were obtained in all test samples as the storage period progressed. All types of Acacia gums have invariably caused an increase in phosphorus content of all samples until the day 8 of storage period. The highest value (122.48 mg/100g) being for the samples treated with the Acacia gum, while the lowest value (94.40 mg/100g) for the control. The senegal gum had imposed similar increasing trends of calcium and magnesium recording the highest values (192.30 and 194.73 mg/100g respectively), while the control gave the lowest values (141.73 and 129.74 mg/100g respectively). Generally, the contents of the minerals determined in yoghurt have decreased during storage periods. For acceptability, the use of leata gum a manifested the best appearance (5.50), texture (5.77), flavour (5.97), and acceptability (5.78), followed by Acacia senegal (5.45 5.73, 5.95 and 5.74), Acacia polyacantha (5.28, 5.57, 5.75 and 5.75), Acacia seyal var. seyal (4.98, 5.50, 4.43and 5.31), Acacia seyal var.fistula (4.93, 5.46, 45.40, 5.30) and finally the control (3.98, 4.86, 5.00 and 4.67). The storage period affected the acceptability of set yoghurt in terms of appearance, texture and overall acceptability in that the three sensory parameters gave the best qualities at the beginning of the storage period and the worst at the end. Regarding the flavour, remarkable development was observed after 12 days from the beginning of the storage period by recording the highest value (5.94), thereafter, reached the lowest level (4.83) at the end of the storage period
ﺘﻤﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺼﻤﻎ ﺍﻻﻜﺎﺸﻴﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ % ﻭﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﺯﻴﻥ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺯﺒﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﻨﻊ ﻤﻥ ﻝﺒﻥ 0.3ﺍﻷﺒﻘﺎﺭ. ﺍ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﻜﺎﻜﻤﻭﺕ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺢ ﺍﻻﺒﻴﺽ ﻭﺍﻝﻁﻠﺢ ﺍﻻﺼﻔﺭ ﻜﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﺜﺒﺘﺔ ﻨﻭﻉ ﺼﻤﻎ ﺍﻻﻜﺎﺸﻴﺎ ﺍﺤﺘﻭﺕ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺼﻤﻎ ﺍﻝﻬﺸﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺸﺒﺎ 85% ﺒﻌﺩ ﺒﺴﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻠﺒﻥ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ5ﻝﻘﻭﺍﻡ ﺍﻝﺯﺒﺎﺩﻱ. ﺘﻡ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺩﻗﺎﺌﻕ. ﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﻀﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻠﺒﻥ ﻋﻠﻲ 10 ﻡ ﻝﻤﺩﺓ 45 ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ 6 ﻡ ﻝﻤﺩﺓ ﺃﺭﺒﻊ ﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺜﻡ ﺒﺭﺩ ﺇﻝﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﻴﻭﻤﹰﺎ. ﺘﻡ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻜ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﻔﺎﺕ 20 ﻡ ﻭﺨﺯﻥ ﻝﻤﺩﺓ 2 ﺍﻝﻔﻴﺯﻴ ﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺭﻴﻭﻝﻭﺠﻴﺔ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﺒﻭ ﺨﻼ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺘﺨﺯﻴﻥ ﻴﻭﻤﹰﺎ. ﺃﻭﻀﺤﺕ 20 61 ﻭ 12 8 4 0 ﻭﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺼﻔ ﺨﻼ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﺯﻴﻥ. ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻋﻠﻰ pH ﺍﻝﺘﺤﺎﻝﻴ ﺍﻝﻔﻴﺯﻭﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻜ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺘﻨﺎﻗﺼﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺱ ﺍﻝﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﺠﻴﻨﻲ ﺍﻝ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺯﺒﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺒﺼﻤﻎ ﺍﻝﺸﺒﺎﻫﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻨﻰ ) 4.18) ( ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﺸﺎﻫﺩ. ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺼﻤﻎ 3.62 ( ﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ p ﺍﻻﻜﺎﺸﻴﺎ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺍﻝﻲ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ) ﺍﻝﺤﻤﻭﻀﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻴﺭﺓ ﻝﻜ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺯﺒﺎﺩﻱ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﺸﺎﻫﺩ. ≤0.05 ( ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻱ ﺴﺠﻠﺕ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺯﺒﺎﺩﻱ %(. ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺩﻫﻥ 1.21)%( ﻭﺍﻝﺭﻤﺎﺩ 4.22%( ﻝﻠﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ )19.25ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺒﺼﻤﻎ ﺍﻝﺸﺒﺎﻫﻲ ﺍﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ) %( ﺴﺠﻠﺕ ﺒﺎﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ 2.92 %( ﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺯﺒﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺒﺼﻤﻎ ﺍﻝﻬﺸﺎﺏ ﺍﻤﺎ ﺍﻗ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ) 3.41ﺍﻻﻋﻠﻰ ) ﺠﺔ ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺒﺼﻤﻎ ﺍﻝﻬﺸﺎﺏ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻻﻋﻠﻰ 2116 cpsﺍﻝﺸﺎﻫﺩ. ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﺸﺎﻫﺩ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻷﻗ ) ( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻠﺯﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺸﺎﻫﺩ ﺍﻋﻁﻰ ﺍﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻌﺩ ﻻﻨﻔﺼﺎ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﺵ ﻭﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﺵ (2505cps) (2.98%, . ﺃﻭﻀﺤﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﺎﻝﻴ ﺍﻝﺭﻴﻭﻝﻭﺠﻴﺔ ﺼﻤﻎ ﺍﻝﺸﺒﺎﻫﻲ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺒﺴﻴﻁﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻨﻔﺼﺎ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﺵ (1.85%, 0.38ml) ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻻﻗ 0.92ml) ﺴﺠﻠﺕ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﻭﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﺵ ﻓﻲ ﻜ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺒﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﺯﻴﻥ. ﻜ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺯﺒﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺒﺄﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺼﻤﻎ ﺍﻻﻜﺎﺸﻴﺎ ﺘﺴﺒﺒﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺠﻡ( ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺒﺼﻤﻎ 100/ﻤﻠﺠﻡ122. 48 ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻔﺴﻔﻭﺭ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻝﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻤﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﺯﻴﻥ. ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ) ﺠﻡ( ﻎ ﺍﻝﻬﺸﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﻲ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻤﺎﺜﻠﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻜﺎﻝﺴﻴﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻐﻨﻴﺴﻴﻭﻡ 100 ﻤﻠﺠﻡ/ 94.40ﺍﻝﻬﺸﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻗ ) ﻝﻠﺸﺎﻫﺩ. ﺃﺩﻱ ﺼﻤ 129.74 ﺠﻡ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ( ﻓﻲ ﺤﻴﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺸﺎﻫﺩ ﺃﻋﻁﻰ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗ 100 ﻤﻠﺠﻡ/ 194.73 ﻭ 192.30ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻡ ﺍﻻﻋﻠﻰ ) ) ﻭ ﻯ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﺨﻼ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﺯﻴﻥ. ﺃﻭﻀﺢ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ 100 ﻤﻠﺠﻡ/ 141.73 ﺠﻡ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ( ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻭﻡ ﺘﻨﺎﻗﺼﺕ ﻤﺤﺘﻭ (5.97)( ﺍﻝﻨﻜﻬﺔ 5.77( ﺍﻝﻘﻭﺍﻡ )5.50 ﺍﻝﺤﺴﻲ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺒﺼﻤﻎ ﺍﻝﺸﺒﺎﻫﻲ ﺃﻋﻁﺕ ﺃﻓﻀ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻡ ﻝﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻅﻬﺭ ) 5.75, ﺼﻤﻎ ﺍﻝﻜﺎﻜﻤﻭﺕ ) ( 5.75, 5.95, 5.73, 5.45) ( ﺘﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺒﺼﻤﻎ ﺍﻝﻬﺸﺎﺏ5.78ﻭﺍﻝﻘﺒﻭ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ ) 5.46 4.93) ( ﺼﻤﻎ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺢ ﺍﻷﺼﻔﺭ 5.31, 5.43, 5.50, 4.98( ﻭﺼﻤﻎ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺢ ﺍﻷﺒﻴﺽ )5.75, 5.57, 5.28 (. ﺍﺜﺭﺕ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﺯﻴﻥ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺯﺒﺎﺩﻱ ﻝﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻅﻬﺭ 4.47, 5.00, 4.86, 3.98 ( ﻭﺍﺨﻴﺭﹰﺍ ﺍﻝﺸﺎﻫﺩ )5.30 ﻭ 4.40 ﺍﻝﻘﻭﺍﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﺒﻭ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ .ﻝﻘﻴﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﺯﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻷﻗ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ. ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻌﺎﻤﻼﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺤﺴﻲ ﺍﻝﺜﻼﺙ ﺃﻋﻁﺕ ﺍﻓﻀ ﺍ ( ﻭﺘﻨﺎﻗﺼﺕ ﺇﻝﻲ ﺍﻗ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻱ 5.12 ﻝﻠﻨﻜﻬﺔ ﻓﻘﺩ ﺘﻁﻭﺭﺕ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻝﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻋﺸﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﺯﻴﻥ ﺒﺘﺴﺠﻴ ﺍﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻡ ) ( ﻋﻨﺩ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﺯﻴﻥ4.41
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